Four years later, in 1766, she endeavoured to embody in legislation the principles of Enlightenment she learned from studying the French philosophers. Catherine II, known as Catherine the Great, was born Princess Sophie in Stettin, Anhalt-Zerbst, a remote and poor German principality on the Baltic Sea.She was betrothed to the heir to the Russian throne, the future Peter III, in 1744. [33], During her reign, Catherine extended by some 520,000 square kilometres (200,000 sq mi) the borders of the Russian Empire, absorbing New Russia, Crimea, Northern Caucasus, Right-bank Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, and Courland at the expense, mainly, of two powers—the Ottoman Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. [86] Catherine expressed some frustration with the economists she read for what she regarded as their impractical theories, writing in the margin of one of Necker's books that if it was possible to solve all of the state's economic problems in one day, she would have done so a long time ago. The palace of the Crimean Khanate passed into the hands of the Russians. In 1772, Catherine's close friends informed her of Orlov's affairs with other women, and she dismissed him. The architectural design for the Orlov Gate, approved by Catherine II in 1771, was the work of Antonio Rinaldi. Catherine's Progressive Leadership Ultimately, Catherine did achieve what she set out to do in The Great : women's education and art thrived under her rule. [34], Catherine's foreign minister, Nikita Panin (in office 1763–1781), exercised considerable influence from the beginning of her reign. In the west, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, ruled by Catherine's former lover, King Stanisław August Poniatowski, was eventually partitioned, with the Russian Empire gaining the largest share. She made a special effort to bring leading intellectuals and scientists to Russia. Because the diamond is mounted, it has not been accurately weighed. He led the coup which overthrew Catherine's husband Peter III of Russia, and installed Catherine as empress. Potemkin had the task of briefing him and travelling with him to Saint Petersburg. An admirer of Peter the Great, Catherine continued to modernize Russia along Western European lines. She established a centralized medical administration charged with initiating vigorous health policies. Look it up now! Marcum, James W. "Catherine II and the French Revolution: A Reappraisal.". Orlov, Grigori Grigoryevich, Count (grĭgô`rē grĭgôr`yəvĭch, ərlôf`), 1734–83, Russian nobleman.One of the first lovers of Catherine II Catherine II or Catherine the Great, 1729–96, czarina of Russia (1762–96). The story claimed that her maids believed that Catherine spent too much unsupervised time with her favourite horse, Dudley. [72] However, they were already suspicious of Catherine upon her accession because she had annulled an act by Peter III that essentially freed the serfs belonging to the Orthodox Church. Peter also intervened in a dispute between his Duchy of Holstein and Denmark over the province of Schleswig (see Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff). They had an illegitimate son, Aleksey who was named after the village of Bobriki, and from whom descends the line of the Count Bobrinsky. CATHERINE II (1729 – 1796; ruled 1762 – 1796). She came to power following a coup d'état that overthrew her husband and second cousin, Peter III. He had a younger brother Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov who would equally gain military and political prominence in Russia. They informed the empress that Orlov had seduced his 13-year-old relative. Charles II, George I, and George II of England, as well as Louis XIV and Louis XV of France, had officially recognized mistresses. She did not allow dissenters to build chapels, and she suppressed religious dissent after the onset of the French Revolution. Catherine II of Russia (Also titled Catherine the Great or Yekaterina Aleksei'evna) (April 21, 1729, Stettin, Germany – November 17, 1796 Tsarskoye Selo, Russia) was Empress of Russia.She came to power by a Coup d'état that deposed her husband, who was killed.. Catherine greatly increased the power of the crown. Although she never met him face to face, she mourned him bitterly when he died. On the day of Catherine II’s accession to the throne, Captain Grigory Orlov was promoted to Major General, given the title of Acting Chamberlain, and received the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky and a sword richly decorated with diamonds. By the winter of 1773, the Pugachev revolt had started to threaten. [114], In 1785, Catherine approved the subsidising of new mosques and new town settlements for Muslims. Catherine completed the conquest of the south, making Russia the dominant power in south-eastern Europe after the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774. [48] In 1762, he unilaterally abrogated the Treaty of Kyakhta, which governed the caravan trade between the two empires. While serving in the capital as an artillery officer, he caught the fancy of the then Grand Duchess Catherine Alekseyevna, and was the leader of the conspiracy which resulted in the dethronement and death of her husband, Emperor Peter III (1762). For some time before his death, he suffered from a serious mental illness, probably a form of dementia, which progressed towards complete mental collapse. Built in the 18th century for count Gregory Orlov, Catherine II’s favourite, the Palace was to serve as a hunting and residential estate. She once wrote to her correspondent Baron Grimm: "I see nothing of interest in it. Central to the institute's philosophy of pedagogy was strict enforcement of discipline. These were the privileges a serf was entitled to and that nobles were bound to carry out. The emergence of these assignation rubles was necessary due to large government spending on military needs, which led to a shortage of silver in the treasury (transactions, especially in foreign trade, were conducted almost exclusively in silver and gold coins). Orlov, therefore, was in no danger because of his relationship with Catherine until he became involved with her in a conspiracy to overthrow the sovereign. She provided support to a Polish anti-reform group known as the Targowica Confederation. St Petersburg, Russia. Russian local authorities helped his party, and the Russian government decided to use him as a trade envoy. [82][83], Catherine enlisted Voltaire to her cause, and corresponded with him for 15 years, from her accession to his death in 1778. After his death, the Empress Catherine wrote, "Although I have long been prepared for this sad event, it has nevertheless shaken me to the depths of my being. [134], After her affair with her lover and adviser Grigori Alexandrovich Potemkin ended in 1776, he allegedly selected a candidate-lover for her who had the physical beauty and mental faculties to hold her interest (such as Alexander Dmitriev-Mamonov and Nicholas Alexander Suk[135]). Because the Moscow Foundling Home was not established as a state-funded institution, it represented an opportunity to experiment with new educational theories. [47], The Qianlong emperor of China was committed to an expansionist policy in Central Asia and saw the Russian empire as a potential rival, making for difficult and unfriendly relations between Beijing and Saint Petersburg. [30] Nothing came of this, however, and Catherine reigned until her death as an autocrat without any Constitution introducing human rights to Russian legislation. Orlov died in 1783. Running and games were forbidden, and the building was kept particularly cold because too much warmth was believed to be harmful to the developing body, as was excessive play. The use of these notes continued until 1849. It was charged with admitting destitute and extramarital children to educate them in any way the state deemed fit. In addition, they received land to till, but were taxed a certain percentage of their crops to give to their landowners. A key principle was responsibilities defined by function. She bore him a daughter named Anna Petrovna in December 1757 (not to be confused with Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia, the daughter of Peter I's second marriage). George E. Munro, "The Empress and the Merchants: Response in St. Petersburg to the Regulation of Commerce under Catherine II", "The Economic Contributions of the German Russians to the Imperial Russian Economy. [128][129], Religious education was reviewed strictly. Ivan VI was assassinated during an attempt to free him as part of a failed coup: like Empress Elizabeth before her, Catherine had given strict instructions that Ivan was to be killed in the event of any such attempt. Compositionally the Orlov Gate takes the form of a triumphal arch with a single span. Isabel de Madriaga, “Catherine II and the Serfs: A Reconsideration of Some Problems”, M. B. W. Trent, "Catherine the Great Invites Euler to Return to St. Her rise to power was supported by her mother's wealthy relatives, who were both nobles and royal relations. In addition to the advisory commission, Catherine established a Commission of National Schools under Pyotr Zavadovsky. However, if the tsar's policies were too extreme or too disliked, she was not considered the true tsar. [81] She wrote comedies, fiction, and memoirs. Teplov, T. von Klingstedt, F.G. Dilthey, and the historian G. Muller. Yet by the end of Catherine's reign, an estimated 62,000 pupils were being educated in some 549 state institutions. [115][116], Russia often treated Judaism as a separate entity, where Jews were maintained with a separate legal and bureaucratic system. And she’d formed close ties with many in the Russian nobility and the Church. Catherine II Catherine II of Russia Empress Catherine II Count Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov (Алексей Григорьевич Орлов; 5 October 1737 – 5 January 1808) was a Russian soldier and statesman, who rose to prominence during the reign of Catherine the Great. [citation needed]. She worked with Voltaire, Diderot and d'Alembert—all French encyclopedists who later cemented her reputation in their writings. While the state did not technically allow them to own possessions, some serfs were able to accumulate enough wealth to pay for their freedom. He died at the age of 52 in 1791. Most came from three large extended families. By 1759, Catherine and he had become lovers; no one told Catherine's husband, the Grand Duke Peter. While the majority of serfs were farmers bound to the land, a noble could have his serfs sent away to learn a trade or be educated at a school as well as employ them at businesses that paid wages. The crown contains 75 pearls and 4,936 Indian diamonds forming laurel and oak leaves, the symbols of power and strength, and is surmounted by a 398.62-carat ruby spinel that previously belonged to the Empress Elizabeth, and a diamond cross. The Tokugawa shogunate received the mission, but negotiations failed. [112], Catherine took many different approaches to Islam during her reign. In 1772, Catherine wrote to Potemkin. [78] By 1790, the Hermitage was home to 38,000 books, 10,000 gems and 10,000 drawings. N. Hans, "Dumaresq, Brown and Some Early Educational Projects of Catherine II", Alan W. Fisher, "Enlightened despotism and Islam under Catherine II. When Sophie arrived in Russia in 1744, she spared no effort to ingratiate herself not only with Empress Elizabeth, but with her husband and with the Russian people as well. He discusses new biographies written about the successive rule of Catherine II, Peter III, and Paul I. Raeff blames Communism for the neglect of this period of Russian History. By the end of her reign, 50 provinces and nearly 500 districts were created, government officials numbering more than double this were appointed, and spending on local government increased sixfold. Still, there was a start of industry, mainly textiles around Moscow and ironworks in the Ural Mountains, with a labor force mainly of serfs, bound to the works. However, military conscription and the economy continued to depend on serfdom, and the increasing demands of the state and of private landowners intensified the exploitation of serf labour. "[148] In the end, the empress was laid to rest with a gold crown on her head and clothed in a silver brocade dress. He was just a two-month old baby when proclaimed emperor, succeeding Empress Anna Ioannovna in 1740. They submitted recommendations for the establishment of a general system of education for all Russian orthodox subjects from the age of 5 to 18, excluding serfs. Catharina II (Die Große) Sophie Friederike Auguste, Empress and Autocrat Romanov of All the Russias (born von Anhalt-Zerbst (Askanier)) was born on month day 1729, at birth place, to Christian August von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg and Johanna Elisabeth von Holstein-Gottorp (born Holstein-Gottorp, Oldenburg).